Pharmaceutical Quality Control
Due to the current increase of counterfeit medicines entering into the legal supply chain system assessment of drug quality has become more important. Even though the magnitude of the problem is high in developing countries, where availability of qualified personnel and properly equipped laboratory is lacking, it has been global problem. Incidences of counterfeit medicines are reported in the USA and UK. As described by the World Health Organisation (WHO), counterfeit medicines are “those medicines which are deliberately and fraudulently mislabelled with respect to identity and/or source. Counterfeiting can apply to both branded and generic products. These may include products with the correct ingredients or with the wrong ingredients, without active ingredients, with insufficient active ingredients, or with fake packing”. They can harm individual patients by causing toxic reactions and anaphylaxis as a result of taking adulterated substances. Counterfeit medicines can also lead to death in developing countries where health service is underdeveloped. Furthermore, the problem extends to the level of compromising the credibility of national health care system which can be damaged if counterfeit medicines get access to legitimate supply chain, leading to patients to become irrationally fearful even if the treatment they are receiving is perfectly safe. It is therefore, of paramount importance for a country or regulatory body to put in place a system that can properly assess the quality of the medicines entering into or being distributed within the country.
Continuous Professional Development (CPD)
CPD is a systematic approach to help individuals learn and grow professionally. These are carried out by structured short training courses tailored to the individual’s current professional role or his/her future career ambitions. The program is beneficial not only for career progression of an individual but also in the success of an organization. Individuals will gain confidence, credibility and efficiency in their role. All these individual qualities will then contribute in the success of the organization to which they are working for by increasing the quantity and quality of production and services. Due to this fact, to date almost all organizations are investing in training of their personnel.
Malnutrition, today, remains a serious problem for many communities of developing countries especially in children affected by poverty and lack of access to food. Malnutrition can lead to health problems and even death. It is, therefore, very important for governments to have a system for assessing the nutritional status of their population and tackle the problem accordingly. A national public malnutrition survey is one way of evaluating the level of malnutrition problem which helps decision makers to plan for an appropriate intervention programs.
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